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Tambopata National Reserve – Jungle Trips

Location, extension and limits in jungle trips

The Tambopata National Reserve:

The RNTAMB is located southeast of the Madre de Dios Region, in the Tambopata and Inambari districts of the province of Tambopata tours, on an area of ​​274,690.00 ha, as shown below:

Its political location of the Tambopata National Reserve is:

  • PROTECTED NATURAL AREA: Tambopata National Reserve
  • DISTRICT: Tambopata Inambari
  • PROVINCE: Tambopata
  • REGION: Mother of God

The RNTAMB – tambopata tours where it limits by the north with the province of Tambopata of the Madre de Dios Region; in the east with Bolivia; in the south with the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and in the west with the Kotsimba Native Community in jungle trips.

Buffer Zone (ZA) of the RNTAMB:

The Buffer Zone of the RNTAMB – Tambopata tours established by Land Resolution Nº 298-2001-INRENA, covers from the Native Community of Kotsimba to the Heath River and has an extension of 186,450 ha (Map 3). The description of the limits of the ZA – AMAZON JUNGLE,

Connectivity in the Tambopata Reserve:

In the country and specifically in the area of ​​the RNTAMB tambopata reserva, several conservation initiatives are known, which seek to implement a system of protected natural areas, through the integration and complementation of conservation areas, management, among others; that contribute to ensure connectivity between spaces at a higher level in amazon jungle.

Currently, the establishment and recognition of the Regional Conservation Areas (ACR) and Private Areas (ACP), such as Habana Rural Inn, Refugio K’erenda Homet, Bahuaja, and Tutusima with an extension of 74.19 ha. tambopata tours; they demonstrate the growing interest of many people and institutions in conserving and recovering natural environments and generating interconnection spaces for the system and the region. Below are detailed cross-border initiatives between Peru and Bolivia.

Conservation Corridor Vilcabamba-Amboró – CCVA:

The Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor (CCVA), is located within one of the 25 global protection zones, in the Tropical Andes hotspot. It is considered one of the most diverse regions in the world and with the highest level of endemism. It currently includes 17 natural protected areas, seven in Bolivia and ten in Peru, which are located in the regions of Junín, Cusco, Puno. and Madre de Dios (CI 2003, Céspedes 2003, SERNANP 2011), without counting an ACR and the nine ACP.

The core of the CCVA is the complex formed by the Tambopata National Reserve, the Bahuaja Sonene National Park, in Peru and the Madidi National Park, in Bolivia. The geographical and biological location of these Protected Natural Areas places them in a strategic place for the promotion and establishment of alliances and binational initiatives for their management and strengthening. Despite the great contribution that this initiative represents, no actions have been implemented to consolidate this corridor (Map 4: Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor).

Madidi Conservation Complex – Manu:

The Madidi – Manu Conservation Complex (MMCC for its acronym in English) covers an area of ​​more than 19 million hectares where different types of land use are made. It includes protected natural areas, indigenous territories, conservation concessions, forestry concessions, chestnut concessions, gold concessions and other products, as well as agricultural, livestock, tourism and other productive activities – amazon jungle trips.

All of these fall within multiple jurisdictions, from the municipal to the national level. The MMCC Consortium, made up of WCS, ACA, FONDAM and SPDA is implementing a cross-border program to promote the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of renewable resources in the MMCC, as well as the creation of a common vision of conservation and sustainable development in the region, under the USAID Andean Amazon Conservation Initiative (ICAA) (WCS 2011, extracted from USAID 2010 tambopata tours).

Methodological process and conceptual framework of Tambopata tours:

Tambopata update process:

The process of updating the Master Plan of the Tambopata National Reserve was led by the head of the ANP, accompanied by the Management Committee. For the elaboration, the document was supported by the executor of the Administration Contract (CA), which led to the participation of specialists from the ANP and the CA – tambopata jungle trips. The work was developed with the ecosystem and watershed management approach, including cultural aspects and sustainability and gender, based on a participatory, concerted and representative process of the key actors involved in the management of Protected Natural Areas.

For the elaboration of the present process of updating the Master Plan, the compilation of pre-existing information of the ANP – tambopata trips has been carried out, with the participation and support of the Reserve and CA staff. The management documents, reports, publications, among others, were reviewed. One limitation of the process was the high turnover of personnel who knew about the work carried out and implemented; There was some systematization of the same, but first-hand information (documents) could not be compiled, for the accomplishment of an evaluation of goals and achievements in the implementation of the Master Plan and its Management Committee in amazon jungle trips.

Methodology in tambopata tours:

Workshops with actors in amazon tambopata:

1. Meetings with population centers, associations, Native Communities, tourism operators, public and private institutions:
The meetings had two stages; The first stage was informative and it explained the background, description of activities, exposure of the importance of the Master Plan. The second stage was to receive the contributions of the actors and jointly develop the SWOT analysis and build the vision of the ANP.

2. Meetings of the program component for tambopata tours:
Meetings in which the revision of the Master Plan, Operational Plans, management documents, progress in programs and assigned tasks were carried out. Proposals and strategies for the implementation of the plan were also considered, planning workshops and promoting the participation of the actors involved.

3. Meeting with local actors for tambopata trips:
In the workshops and meetings of diagnosis and socialization of results involved 13 tourism companies, 27 private institutions and 9 public institutions, with a total of 187 people. Additionally, 3 associations, 7 populated centers and 3 Native Communities participated, having a total of 184 people in jungle trips – tambopata lodge.

4. Meeting with Non-Governmental Organizations:
The purpose of this meeting was to identify the actors within the ANP and its Buffer Zone in Tambopata, to generate a greater approach and promote the generation of strategic alliances. The NGOs presented the projects they have been executing, and which are directly related to the ANP and its Tambopata Buffer Zone. The scope of work, the activities carried out, the time and the duration of each project for jungle tours were explained.

5. Meetings with the Volunteer Technical Advisory Committee in tambopata jungle trips:
A technical advisory committee of the Master Plan was formed, which met on two occasions to review strategic objectives and the matrix of programs with goals and indicators – Tambopata lodge.

6. Validation meeting for the update of the Master Plan for the reservation of tambopata tours:
The meeting consisted in presenting the advances in the management of the ANP, presentation of information gathered from the participatory workshops such as: Analysis of Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats – SWOT, vision, mission, presentation of the socioeconomic diagnosis, methodological process and matrix of programs for jungle trips; allowing to collect the contributions of the attendees, the inclusion of them in a record and the subsequent validation of the Master Plan – tambopata lodge tour.

WCS has been supporting the RNTAMB Tambopata reserva, in the development of management and monitoring instruments, using strategic planning tools with the landscape species approach. These activities are part of a transnational effort between institutions of Peru and Bolivia that originated in 2005. The INRENA (now SERNANP), National Service of Protected Areas of Bolivia (SERNAP), WCS and the Cayetano Heredia Foundation participated with the objective to analyze the situation of landscape species and human activities at the transnational level and develop monitoring and research plans for the Madidi – Tambopata Great Landscape. Said landscape includes, in Peru amazon jungle trips.

Diagnosis of the Process of Preparation of the Tambopata Master Plan 2011-2016:

the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and the Tambopata National Reserve, and in Bolivia the Madidi National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area, the Apolobamba National Integrated Management Natural Area and the Pilón Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Community Land of Origin, as well as several Lands Communal of Origin in jungle (Tacana I, II & III, Lecos Apollo, Lecos Larecaja, Uchupiamonas, Araona and Moseten).

Until July 2011, 3 transnational workshops were held. In December 2009, at the request of the RNTAMB and AIDER and in a participatory workshop, the conceptual models and the monitoring matrix of the scope of the Administration Contract were built. This conceptual model and monitoring matrix have served as the basis for the development of the Integrated Monitoring Plan for the RNTAMB tambopata and the PNBS-MdD and is the one that has been updated and used as a basis to define the strategies of this Master Plan for tambopata tours .

Biophysical characteristics of the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone:

Your Climate in tambopata tours:

The climate corresponds to humid subtropical forest or very humid, with an average annual temperature of 26 ° C tambopata tours, fluctuating between 7.1 ° C (Quispe, 2004) and 38 ° C (Rasanen, 1993, cited by CI-Peru , 1999).
Low temperatures are conditioned by cold Antarctic winds that arrive at irregular intervals across the Andes and enter the Amazon basin in Peru. The presence of cold winds, “friaje”, occurs with greater intensity in the months of June and July (Shenck, 1999 jungle tours).
The maximum temperatures reach 38 ° C and are regularly presented in the months of September to October. The annual rainfall ranges from 1,600 mm to 2,400 mm (Rasanen, 1993, cited by CI-Peru amazon, 1999).
The monthly rainfall varies throughout the year, with months of maximum rainfall (December to March), transition months (April, May and October, November) and months of low water (June, July, August and September for jungle trips). .
The monthly average of registered rainfall ranges from 50.0 mm (July) to 370.1 mm (December), with a maximum monthly precipitation of 603.6 mm (January) and a minimum monthly rainfall of 2.6 mm (July Tambopata Lodge).
The average annual rainfall for the period 2002-2006 is 2 381.4 mm, with great irregularity in the registration period; the annual maximum (2 864.0 mm) was presented in the year 2003 and the minimum annual value (1 804.3 mm) was presented in the year 2005 amazon.
For the identification of the climate, the study of the Climatic Classification of Peru amazon and its respective Climatic Map (SENAMHI, 2006 amazon peru) was taken as reference.

Altitude gradient in tambopata tour:

The RNTAMB is located at an average altitude of 300 m, with an altitudinal range between 200 and 400 m and a little rugged physiography, with slopes ranging from 0 to 5%. The ZA has similar characteristics (Map 5: Relief amazon).

Hydrography of tambopata trips:

The RNTAMB, the PNBS and their ZA harbor, although not entirely, the Tambopata and Heath river basins (INRENA, 2003), formed by large, medium and small streams that make most of the spaces accessible during the rainy season. growing (Map 6: Satellite map of tambopata).
In the RNTAMB from west to east there are rivers that mostly cross the ANP from the PNBS, such as the Azul and Malinowsquillo rivers, which converge on the right bank of the Malinowski river (limit of the ANP), which in turn joins with the Tambopata River.
The Tambopata River almost does not form meanders and the formation of “cochas” is scarce, with the straight sections bordering terraces and hills on either side of the shore. The density of lakes from its mouth to its confluence with the Malinowski River is four lakes per 100 km of river. The width of the river is variable, reaching approximately 250 meters in its lower course and can reach twice as much in the middle course, when it extends in a flat bed (Shenck, 1999).
The Malinowski River is born in the native community of Kotsimba, outside the boundaries of the RNTAMB and has as main tributaries the Pamahuaca, Azul, Malinowsquillo and Agua Negra rivers on the right bank and the Manuani River on the left bank. The Heath River, with more than 200 km in length (Shenck, 1999) from its origin in the last foothills of the Andes, in the Puno Region, to its mouth in the Madre de Dios River, forms part of the eastern boundary of the RNTAMB and it is the boundary between Peru and Bolivia.
The Heath River has the typical characteristics of a whitewater river in the lowlands. The formation of meanders and “cochas” is frequent, with a density of 14.5 cochas per 100 km of river and with an approximate width of 100 meters (Shenck, 1999). The main tributaries of the Heath River are the Bravo and Wiener rivers, which are found in the PNBS (INRENA, 2003).

Areas of life in Tambopata amazon:

According to the Ecological Map of Peru (INRENA, 1994), the RNTAMB has three life zones: Subtropical humid forest, very humid subtropical forest and very humid subtropical transitional forest to Subtropical Rainforest (Map 7: Ecology).
In the following tables (6 and 7) the surface that covers each one of the Life Zones and their representation in the RNTAMB and in its ZA is summarized.

– Very humid Subtropical forest
– Subtropical humid forest
– Very Humid Subtropical Forest (Transitional to Subtropical Rainforest)

Types of Forest in tambopata tours:

In the RNTAMB there are eleven forest types and three other groups (deforested zone by anthropogenic action and natural events, lagoons and rivers).

Diversity of forests in tambopata:

The tropical forests located in the Madre de Dios region have received special attention from national and foreign scientists because of the great biodiversity they harbor, the complexity of their ecosystem processes and the particular state of conservation they maintain.

The study of the demand for scientific research for the Tambopata National Reserve and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park in Madre de Dios (Ochoa et al., 2010), reports that 70% of the research is oriented towards the study of flora and fauna, showing clearly that researchers are there to study biodiversity; although it also highlights that 30% of the research refers to other issues that are specific to the management of the ANP and its problems. The topics of the documents related to the RNTAMB and the PNBS correspond mainly to: ecology and / or ethology (23 , 8%), biological inventory and / or diversity (22.4%), systematics / taxonomy and / or phylogeny (14.4%), distribution and biogeography (7.3%). The conservation and management of treated natural resources are less than 10%; also the social issues (3.8%) and climate, tourism, geography are treated between 4 to 6% of the publications. The topics of vital importance in the management of the ANP such as sustainable development, management of ANP, biological monitoring are treated in less than 10% of the publications.

Wild flora in tambopata tours:

In the Master Plan (2004-2008) of the RNTAMB – tambopata trips, 1,255 species of flora were reported. In the present process this information has been updated, mainly based on the consultation of publications in national and international journals of research carried out within the RNTAMB tambopata; the New York Botanical Garden database, as well as floristic reports and listings – amazon peru.
At present, the RNTAMB reports 1,713 species, belonging to 654 genera of 145 families (jungle trips). For angiosperms (flowering plants) the classification proposed by the Angyosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) was considered and for the pteridophytes (ferns) the classification proposed by Smith et al. (2006) was considered. The angiosperms register 1,637 species grouped in 127 families and 622 genera, being the most diverse families Fabaceae (158 species), Rubiaceae (104 species) and Moraceae (66 species). The pteridophytes register 76 species of 32 genera and 18 families, being the most diverse families: Polypodiaceae (16 species), Pteridaceae (11 species) and Thelypteridaceae (9 species) in amazon jungle trips.
In Annex 9, a list of the endemic species registered within the Tambopata National Reserve is presented. In addition to the floristic richness that the RNTAMB possesses, one of the outstanding characteristics is the presence of species of economic importance, whose populations support or have endured anthropogenic pressures that have placed them under some threat level at a national or global level (jungle tours) . According to DS No. 043-2006 AG, which details the list of species under some category of threat, 21 species are reported. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 23 species are registered, of which 11 are in some category of threat. Twenty-seven species are considered in the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is important to highlight that Cedrela odorata (cedar) and Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) are categorized in these three systems of classification of threatened species in amazon tambopata.

Wildlife in tambopata tours:

In the RNTAMB, 1 260 species of vertebrate fauna were recorded, among which stand out: amphibians (93 species of 31 genera and 9 families), birds (648 of 388 genera and 60 families), mammals (108 species of 85 genera and 28 families) and 323 species of fish (205 genera and 39 families) (Annex 10). The fauna of the RNTAMB not only stands out for its richness in species but also for housing species categorized in different levels of threat. For example, 32 species are considered by national legislation, under some category of threat (amazon peru).

According to the IUCN, 830 are threatened: 57 amphibians, 629 birds, 102 mammals, 16 fish and 26 reptiles, of which 28 are under some category of major threat (EN, VU or NT amazon peru).
Also, according to the CITES appendices, the RNTAMB registers 88 species under some category of threat – Peruvian Amazon.