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Tambopata Tours Your People: In the year 2,005, it was estimated that the region of Madre de Dios had 107.664 inhabitants, or less than 1% of the population of Peru. Today, it is one of the fastest growing regions, mainly by internal migration of low-income people out of overcrowded areas. Puerto Maldonado, capital of Madre de Dios, has 42 000 inhabitants, approximately. About 1000 people live in the neutral zone, or at the edge of the Reserve Tambopata tours. Most people live in small villages settled around cities more growth as Labyrinth, and Huaypetue Mazuko.

tours-8Only 8% of the total population of the screed are native Indians. West of the Mother of God dwell Harakmbut, Machiguenga, Piro and Arawak tribes. The ancestral lands Ese’eja centered to the middle of the Tambopata Reserve.

The Ese’eja tribe were always a fascinating and well described by anthropologists. They are a branch of Tacana tribe, whose roots lie south of Bolivia. This tribe combined patriarchy with matriarchy. Another feature of the social organization of Ese’eja is that it is customary for the maternal grandparents adopt the first two children after they are born. This practice is especially established by the decline of its population in the twentieth century.

Ese’eja society, like most, is dependent on the relationship with other similar companies and is constantly changing. The colonization and contact with different people, especially in the last century and during the rubber industry has been given to a gradual migration of Ese’eja downstream from rough screeds screeds to better access, more populated and closer tributaries of the Madre de Dios river, in Peru, and Beni, in Bolivia. As a result of these migrations, borders the Ese’eja have extended to the banks of the Beni River in Bolivia.

The tribe Ese’eja, like almost all the tribes of the Amazon, using cassava as their main food. This result, native to the Amazon region, is easy to grow and has a high caloric value.

travel-5Today, the population of the Ese’eja, as well as the Machiguenga and Piro of the Urubamba, the upper Madre de Dios, has been reduced in number due to different causes and diseases. Epidemics were brought early settlers, such as influenza, polio, meningitis, tuberculosis, among other first. These epidemics were exacerbated during the time of the rubber boom.

The nineteenth century is also characterized by the effort made by the Dominican priests creating the Vicariate of Madre de Dios and Urubamba (Sacred Valley of the Incas, Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, inka jungle trek). Between 1920 and 1930, several missionary settlements were established. At the end of the 60s, the general and dictator Juan Velasco Alvarado established the Agrarian Reform, which gave Aborigines the right to their land. So the natives began to gather in what today is known as “native communities of Tambopata tours”. Currently, Ese’eja living within its seven native communities from Peru until Boiivia: Hell (on the banks of the Tambopata River), Pillar and Palma Real (on the banks of the Madre de Dios River), Sonene (in the Heath river), Portachuelo Alto, Bass and Vlllanueva Portachuelo (in Benl, Boiivia river).

The community of Hell is located on the banks of the Tambopata River and is the gateway for ecotourism in Tambopata National Reserve. The Community received his title in 1976, which contains 9558 acres. In 1988, a post called Ñape Public Health Center was created. Over the years, they have developed new workshops and health projects, development and conservation of the protected area and that center has become a great source of ethnobotanical information. Today, people visit the center to test the chuchuhuasi, made ​​from the bark of Maytenus ebenlfolia, which is macerated with sugar cane rum. In addition, visitors can also experience the ayahuasca ceremony.

tours-6Ayahuasca ceremony is performed by teachers “ayahuasqueros” or specialized shamans. Ayahuasca is obtained from two plants of the Amazon, the Banlsteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which when macerated produce a hallucinogenic potion used to cure diseases, solve conflicts between tribes, family or personal, as a therapy for chimney cleaning and more variety of purposes.

These two plants for the preparation of ayahuasca are just one example of the 190 plant species and 50 animal species in the Amazon used in different contexts, as in the treatment of ailments and diseases, development of strong, healthy children, controlling fertility, among others.

For Ese’eja, as almost all the tribes of the Amazon, hunting is one of the most prestigious practices confer on the holder. For teenagers, the first animal killed during a hunt gives you the right to be treated as an adult. Due to the small number of individuals involved in the hunt, is that this practice can still continue as the number of animals has not been diminished, Hunting, essentially, is done with bows and arrows (ekowiji). Traditional bows can measure up to two meters long. Bows and arrowheads are carved from a palm tree called “mae” (Bactris gasipaes). Rod arrows is made ​​from the flowering stalks of a reed called “wesa” (Gynerium sagittatum). Stalks are dried the sun and then the temperature and straightens with fire. the arrowheads vary in size and shape, depending on its use. endings feathered arrows are used for hunting and war, while those who do not have feathers are used for fishing. arrows for fishing tend to be smaller, perhaps because they are thrown a short rivers Tambopata tours.

Hunters employ a wide range of tactics and techniques, depending on the season, time of day and what you’re trying to hunt. Usually leave the tribe before dawn and head towards where listen movement towards game or clay areas that are visited by different animals. A good time is after rain, as the animals will usually find food and leave footprints in the mud.

tamarin-tambopata-tours-1In 1990, the community of Infierno observed the movement of people headed to shelters built in the high Tambopata tours. This movement originated thanks to an article in National Geographic magazine last year, in which he spoke about the wonderful clay areas that existed in southeastern Peru where were macaw clay licks.

One of the companies that received the most benefit from Rainforest Expeditions was clay areas. This Peruvian company was created by researchers studying the behavior of macaws at the clay areas of Upper Tambopata tours, who created a research center in the area and then turned it into a tourist lodge. As the hostel was a long distance from Puerto Maldonado, needed a rest position midway. The community of Infierno 2000 had aimed his 9500 acres as “reserves”, an area used as a hotbed of trees and wildlife, and where no plots were given to commoners and the direct use of resources is allowed. Was then that Rainforest Expeditions proposed that they be associated to work together. community Hell saw much potential in that society, and in May 1996 signed a 20-year contract between Rainforest Expeditions with 40% of profits and the community with 60% and a shared administration , the first step was to create a shelter called Posada Amazonas and train community members in how to operate, to be gulas, and try to speak English to tourists under the international standards, Today, the refuge is one of the most prosperous rio Tambopata area tours. community has used the profits Infrastructure as a school I support him a well of water, and as a port emprendlmlentos family, farm fish farming and craft projects in Tambopata tours. This successful company has won many awards and the model has been copied by other hostels along the Tambopata River.


Gold mines in Tambopata Tours:

The history of Peru has always been associated with gold. Pre-Columbian cultures were surrounded by wonderful myths and rituals, and were knowledgeable of sophisticated treatments of gold, silver, alloys or Tumbagas, hammering, casting, rolling and cast, which served for the only artificers elaborasen objects with a special and form art, which still continues today.

Carabaya area in the upper Tambopata tours, harbored the richest mines of the Empire of the Incas. In 1558, there retook boom after it was rediscovered by freed slaves. But the boom in the area did not last long. The town of San Juan del Oro, which iniclalmente had about 20 people, after 10 years was 3000. In 1570 gold deposits ran out and left in 1583 and only 1500 inhabitants, until finally the village was reduced to a few locals.

However, since the mid-seventies to the late nineties, the gold mines have been the main economic activity in this part of Peru. When the government created the National Reserve Tambopata-in 1990, there had mining operations in existence and these continued to operate once the reserve was established. These mining operations are conducted on a small scale using pans for gold on a large scale using dredgers and mechanized equipment. Most often, these dredges can be seen along the rivers, especially in the Mallnowsky river, despite the administration of the Reserve is prohibited the entry of these dredges to the protected area. The ore deposits are worked on a large scale using hydraulic equipment, which destroy the banks of rivers creating flooded areas. _ These large scale operators use heavy equipment to exploit gold deposits. Use 28 dredges can be extremely dangerous as it usually works with very large pipe, which must be manually moved by divers. The divers, who are generally untrained villager people risk their lives because they can not see under the water, they have specialized dive and should hold their breath or use hoses that allow them breathing equipment.

Gold is extracted from the grit using a filter for separating the heavy sediment. After the heavy sediment has separated from the mud, mercury is used to amalgamate gold. While most of the mercury is removed to be used or burned, some mercury ends up in rivers. Inorganic mercury is highly toxic and the river becomes part of the food chain. Animals and humans use that water to absorb high levels of mercury, which affects the nervous and reproductive systems and may eventually result in death. People and animals who eat more fish are most likely to suffer the consequences.

The heavy equipment operators use tractors, wheel loaders, trucks, water pumps and platforms for extraction. These operations have resulted in the devastation of 10 000 ha of forest in the vicinity of the mining town of Huaypetue. As mineral deposits in areas Huaypetue and Punkiri are overexploited, owners of heavy machinery see their economic input decreases, then they put the eye to the Malinowski River, which lies within the Tambopata Reserve Candamo. If the extractors of gold, with their heavy equipment to reach into the reserve would put them at high risk of destruction and also would have great impact on forests and riparian areas, since water would be murky, with much sediment and a high concentration of mercury. Also affect mining operations Basin Reserve and its surroundings. Currently, the way to Cusco has several paths to the Malinowski River, which are used by miners to transport your tools and equipment to areas of operation.

Logging in Tambopata Tours:

The construction of the road between Cusco and Puerto Maldonado, in 1965, opened the forest of Madre de Dios to logging, which until then had very low intensity of exploitation due to lack of transport, bucking selective practice that is to remove one or two trees and leave the rest of unspoiled forest, is considered the melor sostanlble way instead of cutting down the whole forest of Tambopata tours. The full cut has not been possible so far by the lack of access to the screed, but selective bucking has been a way of life for many years. Since 1998, when the extraction of mahogany, also called red gold, was banned in Brazil, Peru remained to be one of the last countries where natural resource became almost as valuable as gold. Conservatively speaking, a truckload of this rare wood can have a value of $ 60,000. For this reason, a major invasion of people came to the remotest regions of Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado) looking for those trees. Loggers generally cut more trees with chainsaws marketing, then depart stacked logs and planks. After these long, heavy boards are manually transported to the rivers where they are moored on rafts floating downstream. Sometimes they have to wait for months for rain to come and the rivers have enough water to float the planks to the sawmills. During this wait, the men put great pressure on the flora and fauna of the region with fishing and hunting.

In 1999, Peru signed an agreement with United Nations called the International Tropical Timber Agreement, which succeeded with the export of tropical timber from rainforests it is an illegal activity. In 2002 timber concessions were allocated to local and national companies, including more than thirty in Madre de Dios. Many loggers were not prepared for the abrupt change of this policy bucking, giving as a result problems that have taken years to resolve. After spending many months upstream loggers were arriving without documentation to Puerto Maldonado, which all the work of months was confiscated without compensation. Activity in areas of logging concessions and protected areas of Madre de Dios, is still an important way to make a living for many people, despite the marketing of trees is prohibited in national reserves. While in control posts along the Tambopata and Heath rivers stop timber extraction, illegal loggers, many times, avoid using small trails and rivers in the area to transport the wood.

From time immemorial there is a tree that is the target of extracting most loggers and is known locally as shihuahuaco (Dipteryx micrantha). This tree is very slow growing in the forests of the Amazon and is extremely popular for the production of coal. Once cut, the loggers turn the logs, then covered with earth and allowed to burn slowly for a period of one or two weeks to become coal. The wood is also popular in the lumber industry for the production of fine and sophisticated flats housing. Fauna of the area would be affected by the loss of shihuahuaco, since 85% of the scarlet macaw (Ara macao), red and green macaws (Ara chloropterus) and harpy eagles nest in that tree. Its fruit is a food source for several species.

Agriculture Tours in Tambopata:

The local market of Puerto Maldonado is full of different fruits and vegetables and yummy bright colors. The papaya and banana variety grown extensively in local farms throughout the year. Most of the rest of the fruit is seasonal, such as plñas piling up in the summer and mangoes are stacked at the end of the year.

Many tour companies offer tours to nearby farms, where you can see traditional agriculture. Unlike the Andes, the staple food of the region is not the pope, but cassava. The long roots of potatoes resemble potatoes and dark are not only highly appreciated by the people, but also animals such as peccary or wild pig, deer, among others. Other popular star apple fruits are sticky, sweet and fibrous sapote and cocoa, famous for its seeds and as the ingredient of chocolate.

Many trees and shrubs around farms grow different fruits used to prepare refreshments. The most common of these fruits is called Cocona (Solanum spp.). The Cocona is very acidic when eaten raw, but when boiled and mixed with sugar is very nice and highly nutritional for its high content of vitamin C. Another example is the araza (Eugenia stlpltata) yellow, which is used not only for soft drinks but also in decorating cakes and desserts.

Sostenlbles farming practices, using a variety of crop plantations Monocultural instead are being promoted by different groups. These include the use of legumes that fix nitrogen in the soil, such as palm trees and native Stylosanthes gulannensis as the peach palm (Bactrls gasipaes), there is so much interest from biologists and conservationists in smallholder agriculture where the mixture of native crops increase local and exotic biodlvorsldad.

Extraction of non-forest resources in Tambopata Tours:

Loa uncle forest products that are also extracted from the forest include wild game, fish, fruit, palm leaves, honey, eggs, among others. This is done by rural people as subsistence but also as trade.

The inhabitants of the native community of Infierno sometimes venture to the river ‘La Torre, a tributary of the Tambopata River in the Tambopata Reserve, to hunt and gather some products that fall within this reserve.

Fishing in this area is for subsistence, but there is also the commercial fishing takes place in the lower Madre de Dios, on the northeast edge of the neutral zone. Mostly networks, but also with wire hooks are used. The average amount of fish that is extracted in the lower Madre de Dios equivalent to 90% of fish from Puerto Maldonado, which emphasizes the importance of the area for the fishing industry. The most popular is fishing catfish, tiger head Spade (Pseudoplatystoma spp.) And giant relative of the piranha, the pacu (macropomum). This solitary fish grows up to a meter long and weighs 30 kilos.

Another natural resource of great demand in the area is the branch of palm or palm kernel fishtail (Geonoma deversa). Although these branches are not very large, are woven into long mats to be used as roofs of houses and inns. They are very resistant to decomposition of the forest and can last up to ten years.

Collecting chestnuts in Tambopata Tours:

Chestnuts, also known as Brazil nuts, have good local and international market and belong to the natural chain conservaclonismo because trees produce in a healthy forest ecosystem. In Peru, the forest areas with dense stands of chestnut trees are known by the name of chestnut trees. These areas are given as the chestnut forest concessions, who manage the business under contract with the Peruvian Forest Service. Around 1.2 million hectares of chestnut trees are in use in Madre de Dios. Brazil nut concessions are privately managed conservation areas and allows families living in this business, keeping the forest intact. _ The Harvest nuts sold to local industries, which exported 32 package and the product abroad. This mining activity provides more than half of the annual gain thousands of Amazonian families and protects millions of acres of vandalism and deforestation. The chestnut market is currently worth U.S. $ 5 million for Peru and due to its natural cultivation is being promoted by the Organization of Conservation and Research, ACA (Amazon Conservation Association).

Ecotourism in Tambopata Tours:

Ecotourism has become an important activity in the area in recent years. Mother of God has more than 37 registered shelters, some of which are provided in the neutral zone and two in the reserve. There are also independent guides operating in the area. Some local people are participating with their own hostels, accommodation, with the help of loans and institutional support. As an example, the community project of Baltimore, in the midsection of the Tambopata River, has trained local families to offer similar experiences for visitors to stay in a house. One of those families is located in the only existing cataract in the lower Tambopata River, which forms the confluence with the River Cat.

More than fifty thousand tourists visit Tambopata tours each year. This number is spread in countless hostels, ensuring that where tourists go have a peaceful experience. Entry fees to the area from tourists, are an important source of revenue for protected area management. Ecotourism provides employment to hundreds of people and. Many industries. Establishing ecotourism lodges and concessions along the neutral zone provides the first line of defense in the Tambopata National Reserve and National Park-Sonene Bahuaja.

However, ecotourism is not a panacea and can create big problems if not properly regulated. New guides can ignore the orders and guidelines, trying to outsmart and risky to impress tourists. For example, pressing unnecessarily when approaching wildlife and capture sensitive animals such as the giant otter. Studies show that certain sensitive species rather avoid routes where tourists usually go, especially when there has been a history of hunting in the area.

Tropical rain forests are responsibly Incredible places and participate in ecotourism can help protect oslo n Important ecosystem

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