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Culture – Traditions in the jungle trips – Tambopata Lodge

The jungle trips is a fascinating setting with lush flora and fauna, fabulous scenery and interesting human groups in the jungle. At the same time, it is a hostile environment full of threats. The inhabitants of the Amazon basin for centuries have adapted to this environment, and the way of life, culture and customs are inseparable from the environment in the forest as Tambopata Reserve, Reserve sandoval lake and park reserve national manu.

In this context, indigenous peoples have been threatened their survival constantly and unpredictably by insects, disease, predators, evil spirits, shamans dark magic, torrential rains, rivers and so on through the jungle. Therefore, the values and vision of life, death and survival are very different from Westerners. The pragmatism of the natives may surprise the Western traveler.

Be aware that concepts such as “personal development” and “self” are alien to their culture and have not been, until the arrival of the white man and the mestizo, when these concepts have begun to enter the shamanic context . The traditional role of the shaman is the man to cure diseases and protects the community, not the teacher or spiritual guide. One of the biggest mistakes travelers seeking experiences with ayahuasca is to try to find a shaman to perform functions counselor, mentor, or guide, and hope that shamans are spiritually elevated beings. As in all professions, there are yes and some are not.

Teachers plants and diets Tambopata Lodge

In quackery many plants are used and ayahuasca is only one of them. The snuff, the toé, the yawar-panga, the Chiring-sanango, chacruna, ayahuasca … all these plants have a role in the Amazonian medicine. Some of them are used as purging, a very important concept in this tradition, to cleanse the body and prepare for the lesson of the master plan is to take next in the jungle. Others are used to cure specific ailments or gain knowledge in the process of initiation into quackery. The traditional way of making these plants is diet, consisting of a more or less prolonged period of time in which shuts in isolation dietador adopts strict dietary and behavioral restrictions and making the master plant preparations. The healer makes periodic visits to dietador to guide you through the process.

Therefore we must not understand quackery as the simple act of taking ayahuasca, as it goes far beyond this, although it is true that both the snuff and ayahuasca have a central role in the shamanic world. However, the ritual use of ayahuasca is a common thread linking religion and spirituality almost all indigenous peoples of the Upper Amazon, including the mestizo population. It seems likely that shamanic practices of most of Alto Amazonas – Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia – form a single religious cultural area.

Worldview – Tambopata Lodge

The worldview of the native cultures of the Amazon basin is very different from the West. The ayahuasca and other plants are not only used to cure, or religious contexts. In his book Singing to the Plants, Stephan Beyer note: “It is through the hallucinogen ayahuasca concoction that hundreds of medicinal plants, including plants for attack or defense magic reveal their appearance and teach their songs; It is through the power of ayahuasca that the shaman can see planets and distant galaxies, the welfare of family members who live far away, locating lost objects, the lover of an unfaithful wife and the identity of the sorcerer who has caused the illness of a patient. It is the brew ayahuasca that nourishes the phlegm of the shaman, the physical manifestation of shamanic power within the body, used both to defend against magical attacks, as a container for darts [magic, or bolts], which are the main weapon of the shaman “.

Ceremony – Tambopata Lodge

The way in which the ritual of ayahuasca be conducted depend on the tradition to which belongs the healer. While there are similarities in ayahuasca ceremonies that are held in different countries of the Amazon basin, there are notable differences. Since Peru is one of the countries with the highest tradition of ayahuasca tourism, many of the people who have taken ayahuasca in a shamanic context have done in the context of Peruvian tribes such as the Shipibo-Conibo, Ashaninka, etc.

Ayahuasca ceremonies in Peru are held at night. Darkness can more easily delivered to visions and provides insulation of external visual stimuli. Thus, participants meet in a “tambo” (typical Amazonian construction, high ground, without walls and roof of palm leaves).

Normally the number of participants is limited and will be the healer to decide how many can attend. Sometimes, before taking ayahuasca a cleaning or purging specific for this plant is followed. Some centers or healers consider it essential, in others, the purgative effect of ayahuasca itself is considered sufficient for a single shot. Before taking ayahuasca healer usually icaro the brew. This process is to chant a Icarus (name of the songs that are sung during ceremonies) and blow smoke snuff “mapacho” (crushed leaf snuff) into the bottle where ayahuasca is. Then the healer ayahuasca distributed among participants and select the amount as he perceived needs each person. Sometimes the healer can blow snuff or flower water (a type of cologne, with a very distinctive smell) before, during or after the ceremony.

When all participants and the healer have already taken the ayahuasca, is silence and is expected to begin the experience. At some point the healer starts singing icaros, which serve as a guide during the experience, followed by periods of more or less prolonged silence. If the intention of the meeting is to cure disease, the healer can perform a particular ritual as snuff blowing, suction bad energy, elimination of “bolts” (magical darts that healers can throw your enemies) among others. If the intention of the meeting is simply to have an experience with ayahuasca, the healer usually not resort to this type of intervention unless necessary. And if it is following a longer healing process of a disease, the combination of plants taken before and after the ceremony is immense, and the various healing techniques (bathrooms with plants, massages, etc).

Sometimes ayahuasca a second or third time is taken during the session and the healer continues alternating ridges and periods of silence until the effects wear off. Then the healer gives closed the session and participants can return to their own farm / bungalow. In other countries there may be variations in the ritual, as the presence of a fire, or musical instruments like maracas and drums.

Tourist Profile in Tambopata Jungle Trips:

The profile of the tourist visiting Tambopata jungle was recently investigated by Palacio (1998) during a market study of ecotourism in Tambopata. The results of 300 tourist surveys show that tourists who visit Tambopata tours come mainly from the United States (42% tours), England (15% tours), Australia (8% tours), Spain (6% tours) and other European countries . Most of them are under 40 years old, and educated 10 to at least university level (80% tours). His reasons for visiting tambopata jungle the area include: knowing the tropical forest; observe flora and fauna (particularly birds); scientific interest; besides knowing tropical medicine and local cultures – native communities in tambopata lodge. They show greater importance or interest, and sometimes concern, about the state of conservation of the local forest; the quality of trails and trails; the low probability of spotting certain species of fauna; and the lack of information about the area. Of interest is that 60% of the respondents chose to visit Tambopata tours because it was a “different” destination and most of all relatively “close to the city of Cusco” or because it was “included in its general package”. Only 6% They chose the area based on their recognized natural and cultural riches with tambopata lodge.

Types of Lodging and Tour:

In tambopata although few lodging establishments have a formal classification, you can differentiate 3 general categories: hostels, lodging houses and stations biologicals in tambopata tour. The hostels are usually built and managed by tour operators with headquarters in Lima, Cusco or Puerto Maldonado, which usually enjoy more investment and marketer power than lodging houses. There is only one shelter where a local community has direct management (Dearlove et al 2001, Hurtado 2001). Lodging houses are smaller establishments located in private communities or villages and are managed by distinctly local families or individuals. Biological stations are relatively small and are dedicated to providing services for education and scientific research of students, although all also receive tourists (Table 1 in tambopata jungle trips).

There are 21 establishments, tourists of which usually enter the RNTAMB in tambopata jungle. Most of these are located on private lands, ie titled, inside or outside the ANP and therefore tourists only enter the ANP through trails or trails during a part of their tour, in many cases that tour only lasts about hours. Only the Tambopata Research Center is located within the ANP on state lands. In terms of overnight stays, the vast majority of tourists stay for an average period of 3 days and 2 nights at the lodge. Tourists who stay longer usually undertake 5-day and 4-night tours in lodges that often include the area known as the Alto Tambopata to experience the spectacles of the clay licks located there. Some few tourists (average 100 per year) undertake canoe tours of minimum 8 days and 7 nights to experience the adventure and nature along the Tambopata River in the heart of the PNBS – tambopata tours.

Table 1 in tambopata tour. List of lodging establishments in Tambopata. A Shelter; CH House of Lodging; EB Biological Station; * Tourists usually enter the RNTAMB lodge and pay an entry fee; ** Tourists usually enter the RNTAMB but an entrance fee has not yet been established; + Tourists do not normally enter the RNTAMB; Under construction or in renovation; ? Area of ​​use not determined in a lodge.

Establecimiento – lodge Categoría
———————– ———————–
1 Explorer’s Inn A *
2 Tambopata Jungle Lodge A *
3 Sachavaca Inn A *
4 Wasai Lodge A *
5 Tambopata Research Center A *
6 Bahuaja Lodge CH *
7 Fundo Buenaventura CH *
8 Baltimore Lodge CH *
9 El Gato CH *
10 Cahoba Lodge  CH *
11 Villa Villa  CH *
12 Sachavacayoc Centre EB *
13 Picaflor Research Centre EB *
14 Corto Maltez A **
15 Tambo Lodge A **
16 Cusco Amazónico A **
17 Sandoval Lake Lodge A **
18 Hospedaje Mejia CH **
19 Taricaya EB **
20 Iñapari A **
21 Danny’s Mirador A **
22 Loero Lodge A +
23 Ecoamazonía Lodge A +
24 Posada Amazonas A +
25 Inotawa A *
26 Jungle Oddyssey  A ¿?
27 Tambo Tres Chimbadas CH +

Tourist impacts in Jungle Adventures:

As detailed above, Amazon tourism can cause unwanted impacts on the natural environment as well as on the culture and economy of local populations. In Madre de Dios has made four studies demonstrating the existence of impacts of tourism on wildlife (Groom 1990, Staib & Schenck 1994, Yoon et al. 1997, Kirkby et al. 2000) observed changes in abundance, behavior, and use of the space of populations of certain species of fauna – impacts that also support public opinion (Balarezo pers. Dearlove et al. (2001) apart from highlighting some of the benefits that tourism can bring to local populations in the Peruvian Amazon, it also mentions the existence in Madre de Dios of a concern about the impacts of tourism on the cultures of indigenous populations, particularly in tambopata and manu park While more tourists visit a limited number of existing attractions (oxbow lakes, quarries, streams, communities, etc.) undoubtedly the pressure on these attractions will increase. This pressure, if not managed properly, can result in progressive impacts and a reduction in the quality of the tourist resource and possibly the ecological or social integrity of those mismanaged attractions.

National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State – Tambopata Lodge:

The National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State – SERNANP – Tambopata lodge, is a Specialized Public Technical Agency attached to the Ministry of the Environment, according to Legislative Decree 1013 of May 14, 2008, in charge of directing and establishing the technical and administrative criteria for the establishment and management of Protected Natural Areas – ANP, and to protect the conservation of biological diversity. SERNANP is the governing body of the National System of Natural Protected Areas by the State – SINANPE – Tambopata, and in its capacity as a technical-regulatory authority it carries out its work in coordination with regional governments, local and owners of properties recognized as private conservation areas .

The Natural Protected Areas – ANP Tambopata jungle tours, are continental and / or marine spaces of the national territory recognized, established and legally protected by the State as such, due to its importance for the conservation of biological diversity and other associated values ​​of cultural interest , landscape and scientific, as well as for its contribution to the sustainable development of the country. According to Article 68 of the Political Constitution of Peru “The State is obliged to promote the conservation of biological diversity and Protected Natural Areas” (Article 1 of the Law of Protected Natural Areas, Law No. 2684).

Tambopata National Reserve – Jungle Tours:

The establishment of the Tambopata National Reserve is the result of the efforts of various people and institutions to conserve the ecosystems of the Tambopata tours. In 1977, by Ministerial Resolution-RM No. 0001-77-AG / DGFF, the Tambopata Reserved Zone (ZRT) was created, on an area of ​​5 500 ha around the Explorer’s Inn, occupying the territory between the river The Tower, the Tambopata River and the Infierno ravine in jungle tours. In 1990, on an area of ​​4 478 942.45 ha (which includes the Tambopata Reserved Zone of 1 478 942.45 ha), by RM No. 032-90-AG / DGFF the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone is created, occupying part of the territory of the Madre de Dios and Puno regions.

The Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone maintained this transitory category until in 1996, by Supreme Decree – DS N ° 012-96-AG, part of its surface is adhered to the Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary to form the Bahuaja Sonene National Park; and the remaining surface was waiting for categorization, and it is in the year 2000, that by DS N ° 048-2000-AG, the Tambopata National Reserve is established. In it, a part is destined to the expansion of the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and 262 315 ha are excluded to form part of the Buffer Zone of the two Protected Natural Areas (INRENA 2003).

The Tambopata National Reserve is then established on an area of ​​274,690.00 ha (INRENA 2003), located in the province of Tambopata of the Madre de Dios Region. It should be noted that the local population (natives, castañeros, miners, farmers), the tourism sector and the trade associations were directly and / or indirectly linked to the processes of categorization and management of the Tambopata National Reserve.