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Tambopata Lodge

Tambopata Lodge: Description of the Tambopata National Reserve and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park: A trip to the Tambopata National Reserve (RNTAMB) and the Bajuaha Sonene National Park (PNBS) are located in the south-east of Peru jungle trips (9º57′-13º20’S, 68º39 ‘-72º31’O). The RNTAMB is located in the department of Madre de Dios and covers an area of ​​274,690 hectares (2,747 km) 2), while the PNBS jungle tambopata, of 1.09M hectares (10,900 km2), is divided between the departments of Madre de Dios and Puno (tambopata jungle). Both are united and arise from the zoning of the former Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone (ZRTC), created in 1990 tambopata lodge, for which they are sometimes referred to simply as the ANP of Tambopata. In addition, each of the ANP has its respective Buffer Zone (ZA), which reaches a total area of ​​455,274 ha.
The main access point to the area is the city of Puerto Maldonado, capital of the Department of Madre de Dios and Capital of Biodiversity of Peru jungle. Puerto Maldonado is located at an altitude of 200 meters above sea level and has a population of approximately 50,000 people (A. Garcia com. Pers.). The city has the Padre José Aldamiz International Airport, which facilitates the arrival of tourists to the area directly from the cities of Lima and Cusco lodge. From then on, the routes to the RNTAMB and PNBS lodge necessarily include the Tambopata and Bajo Madre de Dios rivers. Additionally, PNBS can be accessed through the Juliaca – San Juan de Oro highway, and from there to the headwaters of the Tambopata River – lodge tours, although only with the support of boating infrastructure. Puerto Maldonado is only 10 and 25 km from the RNTAMB and PNBS, respectively (in its closest points), and river access is relatively easy in tambopata lodge.

The Amazon Region – Tambopata Lodge – Travel Agency

The Amazon Region, being located in the north eastern sector of the Peruvian territory, near the equatorial line and in an area of ​​transition between the Andes and the Amazonian plain, presents diverse gradients of ecological floors that give origin to a varied mosaic of ecosystems and life zones that harbor a great diversity of species of flora and fauna considered endemic and of high value and priority for conservation at a regional, national and global level (Manu National Park, Tambopata Reservation, Lake Sandoval Reserve).

However, the ecological crisis that our planet is currently going through is threatening to deteriorate all this natural wealth. The ecological crisis, being a global process, has led to an intense debate on environmental problems, promoting a series of agreements and international commitments with the aim of reducing and cushioning these risks – Tambopata lodge.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed by Peru, has guided the adoption of policies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the form of national strategies. Due to the importance of the Amazon for national and global biodiversity, the process of preparation of the Regional Strategy for Amazonian Biological Diversity within the framework of the National Strategy for Biological Diversity, which was promoted by the Focal Points of the Amazonian departments of Loreto, Ucayali, San Martín and Madre de Dios – Puerto Maldonado – Tambopata tours.

Aware of this process and the environmental reality in the Amazon region, the Regional Government and the BIODAMAZ project, considered a prior need a similar process of awareness in relation to the resources of biodiversity regional, which results in proposals for policies and activities to guide the conservation and sustainable use of resources in the region of our Peruvian Amazon.

In this way, Amazonas initiates the process for the elaboration of its Regional Strategy of Biological Diversity, that can be defined as the management tool that will serve to guide, order and prioritize the actions leading to the achievement of the objectives for the conservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity and to achieve the sustainable development of the region, promoting the fair and equitable distribution of the benefits, among the actors of the Amazonian society, This document contains a summary of the situation of the biological diversity of the Amazon region, and It is divided into nine significant topics. They analyze the situational state of the different aspects of this diversity, concluding with a SWOT analysis that serves as a basis for the construction of the strategic framework and allows prioritizing some lines of work with tambopata lodge.

Among the important data is that Amazonas is a privileged region in which there are 21 life zones of a total of 84 that occur in the country. According to the evaluation studies of the State of Conservation of the Earth Ecoregions of Latin America (WWF-World Bank, 1995), the main type of ecosystem found in Amazonas is the Tropical Broadleaf Forest, which contains three main types of habitats: Tropical Broadleaf Humid Forests; Broadleaf Tropical Dry Forests and Montane Grasslands, belonging to the Amazon, Central Andes and North of the Andes bioregions. Additionally, studies show that there are six ecoregions in Amazonas: Yungas Peruanas (30%), Montane Forests of the Eastern Cordillera Real (26%), Humid Forests of the Ucayali River (16%), Humid Forests of the Napo River (14%) ), Dry Forests of the Marañón (10%), and Páramo of the Central Mountain Range (4%) in our Peruvian jungle.


The strategic framework of the Amazon Biodiversity Regional Strategy has been developed in a participatory process in Peru, where those involved have contributed to the construction of a concerted vision on biological diversity for the region and with clear objectives that contribute to achieving that vision , which are presented below.

Vision in the Amazon Region:

By 2021, the Amazon Region values ​​its Amazon-Andean identity, and sustains its development in the knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of its biodiversity in the Peruvian jungle. It develops sustainable economic activities and articulates ancestral cultural expressions with universal knowledge, which contributes to raising the quality of life of its population living within the Peruvian Amazon.

Mission in the Amazon Region:

The Amazonian society, led by the Regional Government, promotes the use of techniques and policies for the management of biodiversity, strengthening local initiatives, integrating them into regional, national and global processes. Implement your Strategy of Biological Diversity, develops integral capacities, and defends and spreads its biodiversity so that the sustainable use of its resources leads to improve the welfare of its population

General objective of the strategy in the Amazon region:

Conserve and sustainably take advantage of the biological diversity of the Amazon region for its sustainable development, promoting the fair and equitable distribution of the derived benefits among all the agents involved.

Specific objectives of the Amazon region:

  1. Ensure the representativeness and viability of the biological diversity of the Amazon region in Peru.
  2. Reverse the processes of deterioration of the biological diversity of the Amazon region in Peru.
  3. Establish competitive production lines based on the biological diversity of the Amazon region in Peru.
  4. Consolidate cultural diversity in relation to biological diversity in Peru.
  5. Develop a decentralized and participatory management for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the Peruvian Amazon.


Peru Amazon is one of the twelve megadiverse countries in the world. Its territory harbors a large number of natural resources in different forms, especially biological diversity, which constitute a special environment in which the response of man has been the generation of a great cultural diversity, expressed throughout the national territory (park National of Manu, Tambopata Reserve, Lake Sandoval Reserve). For this reason, it is extremely important for each of the inhabitants to know, value and take advantage of resources in a sustained manner, always trying to keep harmony in the relationship between man and nature with trips to the jungle. Lately this relationship has been broken by anthropic actions, which are causing a worrying loss of such resources of the Peruvian jungle. Currently, restoring balance must be a priority on the agenda of the actors (governments, producers, institutions, etc.), considering the context that environmental degradation will bring impoverishment to the general population in the Peruvian Amazon – Macaw clay lick chuncho .

From a worldwide and national effort, activities have been developed for the establishment of concerted policies, which are being assumed by the leaders of each place. In Peru Amazon, the Amazon region could not be left out of context, and with the support of several organizations, the Regional Government of Amazonas took on the challenge of conducting a process for the elaboration of a Regional Biodiversity Strategy, with the participation of all those interested in the subject, especially those who have in their hands the destiny of the resources, for the formulation of strategic actions, that allow to orient the roads and reach the longed for sustainable development – tambopata lodge.

The result of this process has been very encouraging. The motivation of the organizations and the regional population has been expressed through contributions and ideas to solve the various problems identified by them, establishing agreements and commitments in order to restore the balance man – nature and improve the quality of life of the Amazonian population – sandoval lake lodge.

I. Referential Framework of the Amazon Region of Peru


Biodiversity or biodiversity is the variability of living organisms from any source including all terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, the diversity of species, genes, and all the ecological complexes of which they are a part. (Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992). Other important definitions are:

Genetic diversity: variability within each species, measured by the variation of genes (chemical units of hereditary information, transmitted from one generation to another) of a species, subspecies, variety or hybrid.
Diversity of species: variation of species on land. It is measured at the local, regional or global scale. Thus, the diversity of species in our forests is expressed by the taxonomic variety of birds, amphibians, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, fish, insects, etc.
Diversity of ecosystems: community of organisms in their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. It includes different types of habitats, landscapes and ecological processes.
Cultural diversity: different living cultures (indigenous peoples or others) that selectively use resources and propagate some of them artificially, also possess important knowledge about use, properties and management techniques.


A strategy is a tool widely used in planning, which serves to guide, order and prioritize actions leading to the achievement of proposed objectives. In matters of biological diversity, Law No. 26839, on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity, in its Article 7, declares the National Strategy for Biodiversity (ENDB) as the main planning tool at the national level, especially for the fulfillment of the objectives of the CBD, of which Peru is a signatory – Tambopata lodge.

The Law states that the strategies, programs and plans of the NBT must be formulated in a participatory manner, including its results with a priority order in the development policies. The ENDB became the fundamental framework for the creation of more characterized strategies, giving rise to the Regional Strategy of the Amazonian Biological Diversity (ERDBA) published in 2001, and whose development, added to the subsequent process of national decentralization made it possible to identify Although some of the processes correspond to the Amazonian area, most of its implementation must be carried out at the local level, which evidences the need to elaborate departmental strategies with specific action plans adapted for each region belonging to the Amazons in Peru.

In this way the development of the Amazon Biological Diversity Regional Strategy (ERDB Amazonas) is proposed, based on the Amazonian strategy, which will serve as a guiding tool for activities focused not only on reversing the processes of deterioration of biodiversity resources, but also to guide the use of the goods and services that these resources provide for the inhabitants of the Peruvian Amazon.

It should be noted that this process is supported by the Organic Law of Regions (Law No. 27867, amended by Law No. 27902 in its article 53º clause “c”), which grants regional governments powers to formulate, coordinate, conduct and supervise the application of the Regional Biodiversity Strategies within the framework of the respective National Strategy. In this process, the main actors responsible for developing and implementing the strategy are: the regional government, local governments, the public sector, the private sector, grassroots organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), national investors and foreigners, political organizations, international cooperation, educational institutions, research institutes, professional associations, chambers of commerce and tourism, the media, and the population of Amazonas in Peru.

Social, economic and productive characterization of the populations settled in the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone

Localities and population of the Reserve area.

According to the census of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) of 2007; Madre de Dios is the least populated region of the country, with 109 555 inhabitants (0.4% of the national population). The ZN of the RNTAMB has a population of 8,147 inhabitants, distributed in the districts of Tambopata, Laberinto and Inambari (Carretera Puerto Maldonado – Cusco), Tambopata River and Malinowski River. The population projection for Madre de Dios was 117 981 inhabitants for the year 2009 and 121 183 inhabitants for 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 2.71 to 2010 (INEI, 2011).

Types of population settlements in the tambopata reserve:

In Madre de Dios the figure of populated settlement is little presented. Local people are organized in agricultural associations with legal recognition in most cases and that are traditionally called “community” in the Peruvian jungle.

a. Native communities:
There are 4 native communities in the RNTAMB and its ZA: Palma Real, Sonene, Infierno (these three belong to the Ese eja ethnic group, Takana linguistic family) and Kotsimba (belonging to the Pukirieri ethnic group, Harakmbut linguistic family).

b. Population centers:
It is the geopolitical category received by a town that has more than 350 families. It has a smaller municipality but they do not have a budget and they depend on the district municipality, counting on a Lieutenant Governor as political authority.

c. Sectors:
Denomination that receives an aggregation of families in small number, being this part of another larger geopolitical area. It is comparable to “neighborhood” and does not have authorities.d. Association of Producers Group of people organized around the development of a productive activity and occupying a common area of ​​land, a condition that makes them closer ties of familiarity and neighborhood. They have a Board of Directors in tambopata.

Population within the RNTAMB and its ZA:

To characterize the populations of the RNTAMB and its ZA, 5 zones were identified (Tambopata amazon): Puerto Maldonado road – Cusco, Tambopata river, Malinowski river, Madre de Dios river and Tambopata National Reserve (Loja, 2010).

a. Puerto Maldonado road area – Cusco:
It includes the South Interoceanic Highway from the city of Puerto Maldonado to the approximately 135 km Inambari Bridge (mileage considered from Puerto Maldonado to Cusco). In this area 23 sectors are settled in which agricultural activities are carried out and are distributed in the districts of Tambopata, Laberinto and Inambari.

b. Tambopata river area:
It includes the Tambopata River from the city of Puerto Maldonado, upstream to the Bahuaja Sonene National Park. In this area twelve sectors are distributed, all included in the district of Tambopata.

c. River area Malinowski:
It comprises from the mouth of the Malinowski River in the Tambopata River, upstream to the Kotsimba Native Community. For the purposes of this document, it is considered as “sector” in this area, mining associations and the aforementioned community. All the sectors identified in this area (4) are in the Inambari District.

d. River Madre de Dios area:
It comprises from the mouth of the Tambopata River to the Sonene Native Community. In this area, seven sectors are distributed, including the Ese Ese, Palma Real and Sonene Native Communities. All sectors of this area are located in the Tambopata District.

e. Tambopata National Reserve Area:
It was identified that two sectors, Lake Sandoval and New America, are located within the RNTAMB.

Areas identified in the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone in Amazonian Peru.

Land and possessions inside the Tambopata National Reserve:

RNTAMB, since before its establishment, has 27 grandfathered supported with Certificate of possession and title deeds, in which (sectors: Lake Sandoval, New America, La Torre and Infierno) economic activities are performed.

In New America, three zones or streams were determined: October 12, Leticia and America. In 2009 and 2010, RNTAMB personnel carried out the georeferencing and registration of the properties in the sector, achieving the registration of 18 rights, which occupy an area of ​​1,150 ha. in the tambopata reserve.

In this register, four titled properties were identified in the year 1998 (Quebrada América) and 5 titled properties in Loero overlapping the RNTAMB (sector adjacent to the ANP), totaling 630 ha. Of the geo-referenced areas in New America, 9 properties are superimposed on chestnut harvesting contracts granted by SERNANP within the RNTAMB (national reserve tambopata).

In the Sandoval Lake sector there are 4 property titles (three individual and one belonging to an association), and 4 properties with a certificate of possession with a total of 287 ha, belonging to: Letis Mejía Sepa, Carmen Mejía Sepa, Wilding Mejía, Sandoval Lake Logde, Benavides Miranda Vigo, Tayson Mejia, Francisco Chirinos Miranda and Lenis Mejía Sepa.

The third sector with overlap (960 ha) to the ANP, is the Native Community of Hell and the fourth sector is in La Torre (1 titled land of 105 ha). In total, the area superimposed on the RNTAMB with title deeds, certificates of possession and precarious is 3 708 hectares for the reserve of tambopata.

Infrastructure of Control and Surveillance of the RNTAMB:

The ANP has 9 distributed Control and Surveillance posts in the Malinowski River, Tambopata, Madre de Dios and Heath (Map 3); which are the pillar of the activities in the Reserve and control of entry to the Bahuaja Sonene National Park in Madre de Dios in the sectors of Farfán, Tambopata with the PCV Malinowski and San Antonio in the Heath River. The 9 positions are: San Antonio, Briolo, Huisene, Sandoval, Jorge Chávez, La Torre, Malinowski, Azul and Farfán. During 2010, the Administration Contract built part of the infrastructure of the new LaV PCV and it was implemented with new infrastructure to the posts of Jorge Chávez and San Antonio (Annex 13: Specific Functions of the Control and Surveillance Posts).

The 2011 operational plan of the Tambopata National Reserve aims to conduct 200 annual patrols, of which 8 are special patrols, which are carried out indiscriminately by the control posts according to the pressures detected towards the protected area.

Social and cultural activities in the associations and native communities in the Tambopata National Reserve:

The expressions and festivities of the associations, known as popular and cultural, are manifested in a sequel of civic celebrations, established mainly nationally, regionally and locally, executed in school or similar spaces.

Among the main festive celebrations are the anniversary of the associations or communities, the celebration of carnivals, San Juan, Virgen de la Candelaria, anniversary of Puerto Maldonado, Holy Week; and others such as new year, mother’s day, worker’s day, school anniversary, father’s day.

Sport is present as a means of socialization, therefore, on the occasion of the anniversary of an association, sector or community, the well-known football championships are organized, especially the inter-communities.

For the native communities the custom and the tradition have a historical sustenance, and great social and cultural importance according to their cosmovision, transmitted from generation to generation orally. The main acts include ritual, song and dance, in recognition and devotion of deities and guardian spirits, and whose compliance is strict.

Local economic development in tambopata:

Agricultural situation:

Agricultural land in the ZA has an average of 42.7 ha, of which approximately 14.2 are used for agricultural activities, another 4.4 are used for livestock production and 24.1 are preserved as forests on average.

The average value used for livestock activities has fairly distant ranges, from a minimum of 2.25 ha to a maximum of 33.59 ha. This is explained when livestock activities are considered to include the raising of poultry that does not require large areas, but raising cattle requires one hectare of pasture per head of cattle. The hectares destined to agricultural production present less uneven ranges.

Agricultural crops and fast-growing products such as corn, rice, cassava and bananas that come from the farm, generate income to cover the primary needs that the producer needs (Figure 1). The production is commercialized in Puerto Maldonado or Mazuko, existing a direct economic transaction between the producer and the buyer. This type of commercialization allows the producer not to sell his product to the “rescatista” stockist (Loja et al., 2010).

Breeding and care of animals (ducks, chickens, pigs, guinea pigs and cattle):

The work force for the upbringing and care of animals comes basically from the family nucleus. The agricultural producers complement their activities with the raising of animals to cover needs of education, health, life insurance, credit and investment to improve their quality of life. lifetime.

Cattle production of cattle is mainly developed in the Road Zone of Puerto Maldonado – Cusco, there being very little livestock raising in areas near the rivers. While the raising of poultry and other small animals, it is reduced and mostly for self-consumption.

Local economic development in amazon peru:

Agricultural situation in the tambopata national reserve:

The agricultural land in the ZA have an average of 42.7 ha, of which approximately 14.2 are used for agricultural activities, another 4.4 are used for livestock production and 24.1 are preserved as forests on average – tambopata lodge .

The average value used for livestock activities has fairly distant ranges, from a minimum of 2.25 ha to a maximum of 33.59 ha. This is explained when it is considered that livestock activities include the raising of poultry that does not require large areas of jungle trips, but raising cattle requires one hectare of pasture per head of cattle. The hectares destined to agricultural production present less uneven ranges.

Agricultural crops and fast-growing products such as corn, rice, cassava and plantain that leave the farm generate income to cover the primary needs that the producer needs (jungle tours). The production is commercialized in Puerto Maldonado or Mazuko, existing a direct economic transaction between the producer and the buyer in amazon tours. This type of commercialization allows the producer not to sell his product to the “rescatista” stockist (Loja et al., 2010 lodge).

Breeding and care of animals (ducks, chickens, pigs, guinea pigs and cattle):

The work force for the upbringing and care of animals comes basically from the family nucleus in the national tambopata reserve.

The agricultural producers complement their activities with the raising of animals to cover the needs of education, health, life insurance, credit and investment to improve their quality of life in the Peruvian Amazon.

Cattle production of cattle is mainly developed in the Road Zone of Puerto Maldonado – Cusco, there being very little livestock raising in areas near the rivers. While the raising of poultry and other smaller animals, it is reduced and mostly for self-consumption in the national tambopata reserve.


Tambopata National Reserve – Jungle Trips

Location, extension and limits in jungle trips

The Tambopata National Reserve:

The RNTAMB is located southeast of the Madre de Dios Region, in the Tambopata and Inambari districts of the province of Tambopata tours, on an area of ​​274,690.00 ha, as shown below:

Its political location of the Tambopata National Reserve is:

  • PROTECTED NATURAL AREA: Tambopata National Reserve
  • DISTRICT: Tambopata Inambari
  • PROVINCE: Tambopata
  • REGION: Mother of God

The RNTAMB – tambopata tours where it limits by the north with the province of Tambopata of the Madre de Dios Region; in the east with Bolivia; in the south with the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and in the west with the Kotsimba Native Community in jungle trips.

Buffer Zone (ZA) of the RNTAMB:

The Buffer Zone of the RNTAMB – Tambopata tours established by Land Resolution Nº 298-2001-INRENA, covers from the Native Community of Kotsimba to the Heath River and has an extension of 186,450 ha (Map 3). The description of the limits of the ZA – AMAZON JUNGLE,

Connectivity in the Tambopata Reserve:

In the country and specifically in the area of ​​the RNTAMB tambopata reserva, several conservation initiatives are known, which seek to implement a system of protected natural areas, through the integration and complementation of conservation areas, management, among others; that contribute to ensure connectivity between spaces at a higher level in amazon jungle.

Currently, the establishment and recognition of the Regional Conservation Areas (ACR) and Private Areas (ACP), such as Habana Rural Inn, Refugio K’erenda Homet, Bahuaja, and Tutusima with an extension of 74.19 ha. tambopata tours; they demonstrate the growing interest of many people and institutions in conserving and recovering natural environments and generating interconnection spaces for the system and the region. Below are detailed cross-border initiatives between Peru and Bolivia.

Conservation Corridor Vilcabamba-Amboró – CCVA:

The Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor (CCVA), is located within one of the 25 global protection zones, in the Tropical Andes hotspot. It is considered one of the most diverse regions in the world and with the highest level of endemism. It currently includes 17 natural protected areas, seven in Bolivia and ten in Peru, which are located in the regions of Junín, Cusco, Puno. and Madre de Dios (CI 2003, Céspedes 2003, SERNANP 2011), without counting an ACR and the nine ACP.

The core of the CCVA is the complex formed by the Tambopata National Reserve, the Bahuaja Sonene National Park, in Peru and the Madidi National Park, in Bolivia. The geographical and biological location of these Protected Natural Areas places them in a strategic place for the promotion and establishment of alliances and binational initiatives for their management and strengthening. Despite the great contribution that this initiative represents, no actions have been implemented to consolidate this corridor (Map 4: Vilcabamba-Amboró Conservation Corridor).

Madidi Conservation Complex – Manu:

The Madidi – Manu Conservation Complex (MMCC for its acronym in English) covers an area of ​​more than 19 million hectares where different types of land use are made. It includes protected natural areas, indigenous territories, conservation concessions, forestry concessions, chestnut concessions, gold concessions and other products, as well as agricultural, livestock, tourism and other productive activities – amazon jungle trips.

All of these fall within multiple jurisdictions, from the municipal to the national level. The MMCC Consortium, made up of WCS, ACA, FONDAM and SPDA is implementing a cross-border program to promote the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of renewable resources in the MMCC, as well as the creation of a common vision of conservation and sustainable development in the region, under the USAID Andean Amazon Conservation Initiative (ICAA) (WCS 2011, extracted from USAID 2010 tambopata tours).

Methodological process and conceptual framework of Tambopata tours:

Tambopata update process:

The process of updating the Master Plan of the Tambopata National Reserve was led by the head of the ANP, accompanied by the Management Committee. For the elaboration, the document was supported by the executor of the Administration Contract (CA), which led to the participation of specialists from the ANP and the CA – tambopata jungle trips. The work was developed with the ecosystem and watershed management approach, including cultural aspects and sustainability and gender, based on a participatory, concerted and representative process of the key actors involved in the management of Protected Natural Areas.

For the elaboration of the present process of updating the Master Plan, the compilation of pre-existing information of the ANP – tambopata trips has been carried out, with the participation and support of the Reserve and CA staff. The management documents, reports, publications, among others, were reviewed. One limitation of the process was the high turnover of personnel who knew about the work carried out and implemented; There was some systematization of the same, but first-hand information (documents) could not be compiled, for the accomplishment of an evaluation of goals and achievements in the implementation of the Master Plan and its Management Committee in amazon jungle trips.

Methodology in tambopata tours:

Workshops with actors in amazon tambopata:

1. Meetings with population centers, associations, Native Communities, tourism operators, public and private institutions:
The meetings had two stages; The first stage was informative and it explained the background, description of activities, exposure of the importance of the Master Plan. The second stage was to receive the contributions of the actors and jointly develop the SWOT analysis and build the vision of the ANP.

2. Meetings of the program component for tambopata tours:
Meetings in which the revision of the Master Plan, Operational Plans, management documents, progress in programs and assigned tasks were carried out. Proposals and strategies for the implementation of the plan were also considered, planning workshops and promoting the participation of the actors involved.

3. Meeting with local actors for tambopata trips:
In the workshops and meetings of diagnosis and socialization of results involved 13 tourism companies, 27 private institutions and 9 public institutions, with a total of 187 people. Additionally, 3 associations, 7 populated centers and 3 Native Communities participated, having a total of 184 people in jungle trips – tambopata lodge.

4. Meeting with Non-Governmental Organizations:
The purpose of this meeting was to identify the actors within the ANP and its Buffer Zone in Tambopata, to generate a greater approach and promote the generation of strategic alliances. The NGOs presented the projects they have been executing, and which are directly related to the ANP and its Tambopata Buffer Zone. The scope of work, the activities carried out, the time and the duration of each project for jungle tours were explained.

5. Meetings with the Volunteer Technical Advisory Committee in tambopata jungle trips:
A technical advisory committee of the Master Plan was formed, which met on two occasions to review strategic objectives and the matrix of programs with goals and indicators – Tambopata lodge.

6. Validation meeting for the update of the Master Plan for the reservation of tambopata tours:
The meeting consisted in presenting the advances in the management of the ANP, presentation of information gathered from the participatory workshops such as: Analysis of Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Threats – SWOT, vision, mission, presentation of the socioeconomic diagnosis, methodological process and matrix of programs for jungle trips; allowing to collect the contributions of the attendees, the inclusion of them in a record and the subsequent validation of the Master Plan – tambopata lodge tour.

WCS has been supporting the RNTAMB Tambopata reserva, in the development of management and monitoring instruments, using strategic planning tools with the landscape species approach. These activities are part of a transnational effort between institutions of Peru and Bolivia that originated in 2005. The INRENA (now SERNANP), National Service of Protected Areas of Bolivia (SERNAP), WCS and the Cayetano Heredia Foundation participated with the objective to analyze the situation of landscape species and human activities at the transnational level and develop monitoring and research plans for the Madidi – Tambopata Great Landscape. Said landscape includes, in Peru amazon jungle trips.

Diagnosis of the Process of Preparation of the Tambopata Master Plan 2011-2016:

the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and the Tambopata National Reserve, and in Bolivia the Madidi National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area, the Apolobamba National Integrated Management Natural Area and the Pilón Lajas Biosphere Reserve and Community Land of Origin, as well as several Lands Communal of Origin in jungle (Tacana I, II & III, Lecos Apollo, Lecos Larecaja, Uchupiamonas, Araona and Moseten).

Until July 2011, 3 transnational workshops were held. In December 2009, at the request of the RNTAMB and AIDER and in a participatory workshop, the conceptual models and the monitoring matrix of the scope of the Administration Contract were built. This conceptual model and monitoring matrix have served as the basis for the development of the Integrated Monitoring Plan for the RNTAMB tambopata and the PNBS-MdD and is the one that has been updated and used as a basis to define the strategies of this Master Plan for tambopata tours .

Biophysical characteristics of the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone:

Your Climate in tambopata tours:

The climate corresponds to humid subtropical forest or very humid, with an average annual temperature of 26 ° C tambopata tours, fluctuating between 7.1 ° C (Quispe, 2004) and 38 ° C (Rasanen, 1993, cited by CI-Peru , 1999).
Low temperatures are conditioned by cold Antarctic winds that arrive at irregular intervals across the Andes and enter the Amazon basin in Peru. The presence of cold winds, “friaje”, occurs with greater intensity in the months of June and July (Shenck, 1999 jungle tours).
The maximum temperatures reach 38 ° C and are regularly presented in the months of September to October. The annual rainfall ranges from 1,600 mm to 2,400 mm (Rasanen, 1993, cited by CI-Peru amazon, 1999).
The monthly rainfall varies throughout the year, with months of maximum rainfall (December to March), transition months (April, May and October, November) and months of low water (June, July, August and September for jungle trips). .
The monthly average of registered rainfall ranges from 50.0 mm (July) to 370.1 mm (December), with a maximum monthly precipitation of 603.6 mm (January) and a minimum monthly rainfall of 2.6 mm (July Tambopata Lodge).
The average annual rainfall for the period 2002-2006 is 2 381.4 mm, with great irregularity in the registration period; the annual maximum (2 864.0 mm) was presented in the year 2003 and the minimum annual value (1 804.3 mm) was presented in the year 2005 amazon.
For the identification of the climate, the study of the Climatic Classification of Peru amazon and its respective Climatic Map (SENAMHI, 2006 amazon peru) was taken as reference.

Altitude gradient in tambopata tour:

The RNTAMB is located at an average altitude of 300 m, with an altitudinal range between 200 and 400 m and a little rugged physiography, with slopes ranging from 0 to 5%. The ZA has similar characteristics (Map 5: Relief amazon).

Hydrography of tambopata trips:

The RNTAMB, the PNBS and their ZA harbor, although not entirely, the Tambopata and Heath river basins (INRENA, 2003), formed by large, medium and small streams that make most of the spaces accessible during the rainy season. growing (Map 6: Satellite map of tambopata).
In the RNTAMB from west to east there are rivers that mostly cross the ANP from the PNBS, such as the Azul and Malinowsquillo rivers, which converge on the right bank of the Malinowski river (limit of the ANP), which in turn joins with the Tambopata River.
The Tambopata River almost does not form meanders and the formation of “cochas” is scarce, with the straight sections bordering terraces and hills on either side of the shore. The density of lakes from its mouth to its confluence with the Malinowski River is four lakes per 100 km of river. The width of the river is variable, reaching approximately 250 meters in its lower course and can reach twice as much in the middle course, when it extends in a flat bed (Shenck, 1999).
The Malinowski River is born in the native community of Kotsimba, outside the boundaries of the RNTAMB and has as main tributaries the Pamahuaca, Azul, Malinowsquillo and Agua Negra rivers on the right bank and the Manuani River on the left bank. The Heath River, with more than 200 km in length (Shenck, 1999) from its origin in the last foothills of the Andes, in the Puno Region, to its mouth in the Madre de Dios River, forms part of the eastern boundary of the RNTAMB and it is the boundary between Peru and Bolivia.
The Heath River has the typical characteristics of a whitewater river in the lowlands. The formation of meanders and “cochas” is frequent, with a density of 14.5 cochas per 100 km of river and with an approximate width of 100 meters (Shenck, 1999). The main tributaries of the Heath River are the Bravo and Wiener rivers, which are found in the PNBS (INRENA, 2003).

Areas of life in Tambopata amazon:

According to the Ecological Map of Peru (INRENA, 1994), the RNTAMB has three life zones: Subtropical humid forest, very humid subtropical forest and very humid subtropical transitional forest to Subtropical Rainforest (Map 7: Ecology).
In the following tables (6 and 7) the surface that covers each one of the Life Zones and their representation in the RNTAMB and in its ZA is summarized.

– Very humid Subtropical forest
– Subtropical humid forest
– Very Humid Subtropical Forest (Transitional to Subtropical Rainforest)

Types of Forest in tambopata tours:

In the RNTAMB there are eleven forest types and three other groups (deforested zone by anthropogenic action and natural events, lagoons and rivers).

Diversity of forests in tambopata:

The tropical forests located in the Madre de Dios region have received special attention from national and foreign scientists because of the great biodiversity they harbor, the complexity of their ecosystem processes and the particular state of conservation they maintain.

The study of the demand for scientific research for the Tambopata National Reserve and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park in Madre de Dios (Ochoa et al., 2010), reports that 70% of the research is oriented towards the study of flora and fauna, showing clearly that researchers are there to study biodiversity; although it also highlights that 30% of the research refers to other issues that are specific to the management of the ANP and its problems. The topics of the documents related to the RNTAMB and the PNBS correspond mainly to: ecology and / or ethology (23 , 8%), biological inventory and / or diversity (22.4%), systematics / taxonomy and / or phylogeny (14.4%), distribution and biogeography (7.3%). The conservation and management of treated natural resources are less than 10%; also the social issues (3.8%) and climate, tourism, geography are treated between 4 to 6% of the publications. The topics of vital importance in the management of the ANP such as sustainable development, management of ANP, biological monitoring are treated in less than 10% of the publications.

Wild flora in tambopata tours:

In the Master Plan (2004-2008) of the RNTAMB – tambopata trips, 1,255 species of flora were reported. In the present process this information has been updated, mainly based on the consultation of publications in national and international journals of research carried out within the RNTAMB tambopata; the New York Botanical Garden database, as well as floristic reports and listings – amazon peru.
At present, the RNTAMB reports 1,713 species, belonging to 654 genera of 145 families (jungle trips). For angiosperms (flowering plants) the classification proposed by the Angyosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III) was considered and for the pteridophytes (ferns) the classification proposed by Smith et al. (2006) was considered. The angiosperms register 1,637 species grouped in 127 families and 622 genera, being the most diverse families Fabaceae (158 species), Rubiaceae (104 species) and Moraceae (66 species). The pteridophytes register 76 species of 32 genera and 18 families, being the most diverse families: Polypodiaceae (16 species), Pteridaceae (11 species) and Thelypteridaceae (9 species) in amazon jungle trips.
In Annex 9, a list of the endemic species registered within the Tambopata National Reserve is presented. In addition to the floristic richness that the RNTAMB possesses, one of the outstanding characteristics is the presence of species of economic importance, whose populations support or have endured anthropogenic pressures that have placed them under some threat level at a national or global level (jungle tours) . According to DS No. 043-2006 AG, which details the list of species under some category of threat, 21 species are reported. According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 23 species are registered, of which 11 are in some category of threat. Twenty-seven species are considered in the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is important to highlight that Cedrela odorata (cedar) and Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) are categorized in these three systems of classification of threatened species in amazon tambopata.

Wildlife in tambopata tours:

In the RNTAMB, 1 260 species of vertebrate fauna were recorded, among which stand out: amphibians (93 species of 31 genera and 9 families), birds (648 of 388 genera and 60 families), mammals (108 species of 85 genera and 28 families) and 323 species of fish (205 genera and 39 families) (Annex 10). The fauna of the RNTAMB not only stands out for its richness in species but also for housing species categorized in different levels of threat. For example, 32 species are considered by national legislation, under some category of threat (amazon peru).

According to the IUCN, 830 are threatened: 57 amphibians, 629 birds, 102 mammals, 16 fish and 26 reptiles, of which 28 are under some category of major threat (EN, VU or NT amazon peru).
Also, according to the CITES appendices, the RNTAMB registers 88 species under some category of threat – Peruvian Amazon.


Manu National Park – Amazon Peru

One of the largest tropical parks in South America. Located in the Southeast region of Peru, nestled in recent Andean buttresses department of Cusco and Madre de Dios jungle. It covers an area of 2 million square hectares of a territory rich in flora and fauna with a variety of habitats Andean, high Andean, tropical and subtropical.

This natural paradise recognized by UNESCO as a World Biosphere Reserve; houses the largest biodiversity in protected areas of rainforest and several endemic species of the cloud forest. Given that many of these forests around the globe are being impacted by human actions, we are fortunate to have an almost Manu intact, untouched by civilization, where we can still observe in their habitat native species in imminent danger of extinction such as the Giant River Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the majestic Jaguar (Panthera onca), the strange Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), and other animals like Tapir , Ocelot, thirteen species of primates, and over a thousand species of birds, including 7 species of macaws (Ara Sp.)

To this we should add that this reserve is home to 10% of the species vegetable world including fine wood trees and countless species of medicinal plants that are being newly cataloged and placed at service science. In one hectare of forest in Manu can have up to 220 species of trees, while one the same size in Europe or America, there are only 20. Without a mistake Manu National Park is probably the area protected richest biodiversity around the globe.


NAME: Manú National Park


  • 1987: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria ix and x.
  • 2009: Extended slightly under the same criteria to include the National Park.


  • 1977: Designated a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man & Biosphere Programme (1,881,200 ha).


BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: Amazonia / Yungas / Puna (8.5.1 / 8.35.12 / 8.36.12)


The Park lies in the southeastern Peruvian Andes 70 km directly northeast of Cusco, covering most of the Manú River catchment from the crest of the Cordillera de Carabaya to the rainforests of the Amazon basin, between 71o
10’ to 72o 22’W and 11 o 17’ to 13 o 11’S.


  • 1968: The Manú area first declared a Nature Reserve.
  • 1973: The National Park established by Supreme Decree No 644-73-AG;
  • 1977: Designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve with surrounding protected areas;
  • 1980: The Manu Reserved Zone established by Supreme Resolution No.151-1980;
  • 2002: The National Park enlarged by the Manu and Amarakaeri Reserves to 215,537.74 ha;
  • 2009: The site boundary in the east slightly amended to include the whole of the National Park.

Culture – Traditions in the jungle trips – Tambopata Lodge

The jungle trips is a fascinating setting with lush flora and fauna, fabulous scenery and interesting human groups in the jungle. At the same time, it is a hostile environment full of threats. The inhabitants of the Amazon basin for centuries have adapted to this environment, and the way of life, culture and customs are inseparable from the environment in the forest as Tambopata Reserve, Reserve sandoval lake and park reserve national manu.

In this context, indigenous peoples have been threatened their survival constantly and unpredictably by insects, disease, predators, evil spirits, shamans dark magic, torrential rains, rivers and so on through the jungle. Therefore, the values and vision of life, death and survival are very different from Westerners. The pragmatism of the natives may surprise the Western traveler.

Be aware that concepts such as “personal development” and “self” are alien to their culture and have not been, until the arrival of the white man and the mestizo, when these concepts have begun to enter the shamanic context . The traditional role of the shaman is the man to cure diseases and protects the community, not the teacher or spiritual guide. One of the biggest mistakes travelers seeking experiences with ayahuasca is to try to find a shaman to perform functions counselor, mentor, or guide, and hope that shamans are spiritually elevated beings. As in all professions, there are yes and some are not.

Teachers plants and diets Tambopata Lodge

In quackery many plants are used and ayahuasca is only one of them. The snuff, the toé, the yawar-panga, the Chiring-sanango, chacruna, ayahuasca … all these plants have a role in the Amazonian medicine. Some of them are used as purging, a very important concept in this tradition, to cleanse the body and prepare for the lesson of the master plan is to take next in the jungle. Others are used to cure specific ailments or gain knowledge in the process of initiation into quackery. The traditional way of making these plants is diet, consisting of a more or less prolonged period of time in which shuts in isolation dietador adopts strict dietary and behavioral restrictions and making the master plant preparations. The healer makes periodic visits to dietador to guide you through the process.

Therefore we must not understand quackery as the simple act of taking ayahuasca, as it goes far beyond this, although it is true that both the snuff and ayahuasca have a central role in the shamanic world. However, the ritual use of ayahuasca is a common thread linking religion and spirituality almost all indigenous peoples of the Upper Amazon, including the mestizo population. It seems likely that shamanic practices of most of Alto Amazonas – Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia – form a single religious cultural area.

Worldview – Tambopata Lodge

The worldview of the native cultures of the Amazon basin is very different from the West. The ayahuasca and other plants are not only used to cure, or religious contexts. In his book Singing to the Plants, Stephan Beyer note: “It is through the hallucinogen ayahuasca concoction that hundreds of medicinal plants, including plants for attack or defense magic reveal their appearance and teach their songs; It is through the power of ayahuasca that the shaman can see planets and distant galaxies, the welfare of family members who live far away, locating lost objects, the lover of an unfaithful wife and the identity of the sorcerer who has caused the illness of a patient. It is the brew ayahuasca that nourishes the phlegm of the shaman, the physical manifestation of shamanic power within the body, used both to defend against magical attacks, as a container for darts [magic, or bolts], which are the main weapon of the shaman “.

Ceremony – Tambopata Lodge

The way in which the ritual of ayahuasca be conducted depend on the tradition to which belongs the healer. While there are similarities in ayahuasca ceremonies that are held in different countries of the Amazon basin, there are notable differences. Since Peru is one of the countries with the highest tradition of ayahuasca tourism, many of the people who have taken ayahuasca in a shamanic context have done in the context of Peruvian tribes such as the Shipibo-Conibo, Ashaninka, etc.

Ayahuasca ceremonies in Peru are held at night. Darkness can more easily delivered to visions and provides insulation of external visual stimuli. Thus, participants meet in a “tambo” (typical Amazonian construction, high ground, without walls and roof of palm leaves).

Normally the number of participants is limited and will be the healer to decide how many can attend. Sometimes, before taking ayahuasca a cleaning or purging specific for this plant is followed. Some centers or healers consider it essential, in others, the purgative effect of ayahuasca itself is considered sufficient for a single shot. Before taking ayahuasca healer usually icaro the brew. This process is to chant a Icarus (name of the songs that are sung during ceremonies) and blow smoke snuff “mapacho” (crushed leaf snuff) into the bottle where ayahuasca is. Then the healer ayahuasca distributed among participants and select the amount as he perceived needs each person. Sometimes the healer can blow snuff or flower water (a type of cologne, with a very distinctive smell) before, during or after the ceremony.

When all participants and the healer have already taken the ayahuasca, is silence and is expected to begin the experience. At some point the healer starts singing icaros, which serve as a guide during the experience, followed by periods of more or less prolonged silence. If the intention of the meeting is to cure disease, the healer can perform a particular ritual as snuff blowing, suction bad energy, elimination of “bolts” (magical darts that healers can throw your enemies) among others. If the intention of the meeting is simply to have an experience with ayahuasca, the healer usually not resort to this type of intervention unless necessary. And if it is following a longer healing process of a disease, the combination of plants taken before and after the ceremony is immense, and the various healing techniques (bathrooms with plants, massages, etc).

Sometimes ayahuasca a second or third time is taken during the session and the healer continues alternating ridges and periods of silence until the effects wear off. Then the healer gives closed the session and participants can return to their own farm / bungalow. In other countries there may be variations in the ritual, as the presence of a fire, or musical instruments like maracas and drums.

Tourist Profile in Tambopata Jungle Trips:

The profile of the tourist visiting Tambopata jungle was recently investigated by Palacio (1998) during a market study of ecotourism in Tambopata. The results of 300 tourist surveys show that tourists who visit Tambopata tours come mainly from the United States (42% tours), England (15% tours), Australia (8% tours), Spain (6% tours) and other European countries . Most of them are under 40 years old, and educated 10 to at least university level (80% tours). His reasons for visiting tambopata jungle the area include: knowing the tropical forest; observe flora and fauna (particularly birds); scientific interest; besides knowing tropical medicine and local cultures – native communities in tambopata lodge. They show greater importance or interest, and sometimes concern, about the state of conservation of the local forest; the quality of trails and trails; the low probability of spotting certain species of fauna; and the lack of information about the area. Of interest is that 60% of the respondents chose to visit Tambopata tours because it was a “different” destination and most of all relatively “close to the city of Cusco” or because it was “included in its general package”. Only 6% They chose the area based on their recognized natural and cultural riches with tambopata lodge.

Types of Lodging and Tour:

In tambopata although few lodging establishments have a formal classification, you can differentiate 3 general categories: hostels, lodging houses and stations biologicals in tambopata tour. The hostels are usually built and managed by tour operators with headquarters in Lima, Cusco or Puerto Maldonado, which usually enjoy more investment and marketer power than lodging houses. There is only one shelter where a local community has direct management (Dearlove et al 2001, Hurtado 2001). Lodging houses are smaller establishments located in private communities or villages and are managed by distinctly local families or individuals. Biological stations are relatively small and are dedicated to providing services for education and scientific research of students, although all also receive tourists (Table 1 in tambopata jungle trips).

There are 21 establishments, tourists of which usually enter the RNTAMB in tambopata jungle. Most of these are located on private lands, ie titled, inside or outside the ANP and therefore tourists only enter the ANP through trails or trails during a part of their tour, in many cases that tour only lasts about hours. Only the Tambopata Research Center is located within the ANP on state lands. In terms of overnight stays, the vast majority of tourists stay for an average period of 3 days and 2 nights at the lodge. Tourists who stay longer usually undertake 5-day and 4-night tours in lodges that often include the area known as the Alto Tambopata to experience the spectacles of the clay licks located there. Some few tourists (average 100 per year) undertake canoe tours of minimum 8 days and 7 nights to experience the adventure and nature along the Tambopata River in the heart of the PNBS – tambopata tours.

Table 1 in tambopata tour. List of lodging establishments in Tambopata. A Shelter; CH House of Lodging; EB Biological Station; * Tourists usually enter the RNTAMB lodge and pay an entry fee; ** Tourists usually enter the RNTAMB but an entrance fee has not yet been established; + Tourists do not normally enter the RNTAMB; Under construction or in renovation; ? Area of ​​use not determined in a lodge.

Establecimiento – lodge Categoría
———————– ———————–
1 Explorer’s Inn A *
2 Tambopata Jungle Lodge A *
3 Sachavaca Inn A *
4 Wasai Lodge A *
5 Tambopata Research Center A *
6 Bahuaja Lodge CH *
7 Fundo Buenaventura CH *
8 Baltimore Lodge CH *
9 El Gato CH *
10 Cahoba Lodge  CH *
11 Villa Villa  CH *
12 Sachavacayoc Centre EB *
13 Picaflor Research Centre EB *
14 Corto Maltez A **
15 Tambo Lodge A **
16 Cusco Amazónico A **
17 Sandoval Lake Lodge A **
18 Hospedaje Mejia CH **
19 Taricaya EB **
20 Iñapari A **
21 Danny’s Mirador A **
22 Loero Lodge A +
23 Ecoamazonía Lodge A +
24 Posada Amazonas A +
25 Inotawa A *
26 Jungle Oddyssey  A ¿?
27 Tambo Tres Chimbadas CH +

Tourist impacts in Jungle Adventures:

As detailed above, Amazon tourism can cause unwanted impacts on the natural environment as well as on the culture and economy of local populations. In Madre de Dios has made four studies demonstrating the existence of impacts of tourism on wildlife (Groom 1990, Staib & Schenck 1994, Yoon et al. 1997, Kirkby et al. 2000) observed changes in abundance, behavior, and use of the space of populations of certain species of fauna – impacts that also support public opinion (Balarezo pers. Dearlove et al. (2001) apart from highlighting some of the benefits that tourism can bring to local populations in the Peruvian Amazon, it also mentions the existence in Madre de Dios of a concern about the impacts of tourism on the cultures of indigenous populations, particularly in tambopata and manu park While more tourists visit a limited number of existing attractions (oxbow lakes, quarries, streams, communities, etc.) undoubtedly the pressure on these attractions will increase. This pressure, if not managed properly, can result in progressive impacts and a reduction in the quality of the tourist resource and possibly the ecological or social integrity of those mismanaged attractions.

National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State – Tambopata Lodge:

The National Service of Natural Protected Areas by the State – SERNANP – Tambopata lodge, is a Specialized Public Technical Agency attached to the Ministry of the Environment, according to Legislative Decree 1013 of May 14, 2008, in charge of directing and establishing the technical and administrative criteria for the establishment and management of Protected Natural Areas – ANP, and to protect the conservation of biological diversity. SERNANP is the governing body of the National System of Natural Protected Areas by the State – SINANPE – Tambopata, and in its capacity as a technical-regulatory authority it carries out its work in coordination with regional governments, local and owners of properties recognized as private conservation areas .

The Natural Protected Areas – ANP Tambopata jungle tours, are continental and / or marine spaces of the national territory recognized, established and legally protected by the State as such, due to its importance for the conservation of biological diversity and other associated values ​​of cultural interest , landscape and scientific, as well as for its contribution to the sustainable development of the country. According to Article 68 of the Political Constitution of Peru “The State is obliged to promote the conservation of biological diversity and Protected Natural Areas” (Article 1 of the Law of Protected Natural Areas, Law No. 2684).

Tambopata National Reserve – Jungle Tours:

The establishment of the Tambopata National Reserve is the result of the efforts of various people and institutions to conserve the ecosystems of the Tambopata tours. In 1977, by Ministerial Resolution-RM No. 0001-77-AG / DGFF, the Tambopata Reserved Zone (ZRT) was created, on an area of ​​5 500 ha around the Explorer’s Inn, occupying the territory between the river The Tower, the Tambopata River and the Infierno ravine in jungle tours. In 1990, on an area of ​​4 478 942.45 ha (which includes the Tambopata Reserved Zone of 1 478 942.45 ha), by RM No. 032-90-AG / DGFF the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone is created, occupying part of the territory of the Madre de Dios and Puno regions.

The Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone maintained this transitory category until in 1996, by Supreme Decree – DS N ° 012-96-AG, part of its surface is adhered to the Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary to form the Bahuaja Sonene National Park; and the remaining surface was waiting for categorization, and it is in the year 2000, that by DS N ° 048-2000-AG, the Tambopata National Reserve is established. In it, a part is destined to the expansion of the Bahuaja Sonene National Park and 262 315 ha are excluded to form part of the Buffer Zone of the two Protected Natural Areas (INRENA 2003).

The Tambopata National Reserve is then established on an area of ​​274,690.00 ha (INRENA 2003), located in the province of Tambopata of the Madre de Dios Region. It should be noted that the local population (natives, castañeros, miners, farmers), the tourism sector and the trade associations were directly and / or indirectly linked to the processes of categorization and management of the Tambopata National Reserve.