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INFORMATION ABOUT THE JUNGLE TOURS

Social, economic and productive characterization of the populations settled in the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone

Localities and population of the Reserve area.

According to the census of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) of 2007; Madre de Dios is the least populated region of the country, with 109 555 inhabitants (0.4% of the national population). The ZN of the RNTAMB has a population of 8,147 inhabitants, distributed in the districts of Tambopata, Laberinto and Inambari (Carretera Puerto Maldonado – Cusco), Tambopata River and Malinowski River. The population projection for Madre de Dios was 117 981 inhabitants for the year 2009 and 121 183 inhabitants for 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 2.71 to 2010 (INEI, 2011).

Types of population settlements in the tambopata reserve:

In Madre de Dios the figure of populated settlement is little presented. Local people are organized in agricultural associations with legal recognition in most cases and that are traditionally called “community” in the Peruvian jungle.

a. Native communities:
There are 4 native communities in the RNTAMB and its ZA: Palma Real, Sonene, Infierno (these three belong to the Ese eja ethnic group, Takana linguistic family) and Kotsimba (belonging to the Pukirieri ethnic group, Harakmbut linguistic family).

b. Population centers:
It is the geopolitical category received by a town that has more than 350 families. It has a smaller municipality but they do not have a budget and they depend on the district municipality, counting on a Lieutenant Governor as political authority.

c. Sectors:
Denomination that receives an aggregation of families in small number, being this part of another larger geopolitical area. It is comparable to “neighborhood” and does not have authorities.d. Association of Producers Group of people organized around the development of a productive activity and occupying a common area of ​​land, a condition that makes them closer ties of familiarity and neighborhood. They have a Board of Directors in tambopata.

Population within the RNTAMB and its ZA:

To characterize the populations of the RNTAMB and its ZA, 5 zones were identified (Tambopata amazon): Puerto Maldonado road – Cusco, Tambopata river, Malinowski river, Madre de Dios river and Tambopata National Reserve (Loja, 2010).

a. Puerto Maldonado road area – Cusco:
It includes the South Interoceanic Highway from the city of Puerto Maldonado to the approximately 135 km Inambari Bridge (mileage considered from Puerto Maldonado to Cusco). In this area 23 sectors are settled in which agricultural activities are carried out and are distributed in the districts of Tambopata, Laberinto and Inambari.

b. Tambopata river area:
It includes the Tambopata River from the city of Puerto Maldonado, upstream to the Bahuaja Sonene National Park. In this area twelve sectors are distributed, all included in the district of Tambopata.

c. River area Malinowski:
It comprises from the mouth of the Malinowski River in the Tambopata River, upstream to the Kotsimba Native Community. For the purposes of this document, it is considered as “sector” in this area, mining associations and the aforementioned community. All the sectors identified in this area (4) are in the Inambari District.

d. River Madre de Dios area:
It comprises from the mouth of the Tambopata River to the Sonene Native Community. In this area, seven sectors are distributed, including the Ese Ese, Palma Real and Sonene Native Communities. All sectors of this area are located in the Tambopata District.

e. Tambopata National Reserve Area:
It was identified that two sectors, Lake Sandoval and New America, are located within the RNTAMB.

Areas identified in the Tambopata National Reserve and its Buffer Zone in Amazonian Peru.

Land and possessions inside the Tambopata National Reserve:

RNTAMB, since before its establishment, has 27 grandfathered supported with Certificate of possession and title deeds, in which (sectors: Lake Sandoval, New America, La Torre and Infierno) economic activities are performed.

In New America, three zones or streams were determined: October 12, Leticia and America. In 2009 and 2010, RNTAMB personnel carried out the georeferencing and registration of the properties in the sector, achieving the registration of 18 rights, which occupy an area of ​​1,150 ha. in the tambopata reserve.

In this register, four titled properties were identified in the year 1998 (Quebrada América) and 5 titled properties in Loero overlapping the RNTAMB (sector adjacent to the ANP), totaling 630 ha. Of the geo-referenced areas in New America, 9 properties are superimposed on chestnut harvesting contracts granted by SERNANP within the RNTAMB (national reserve tambopata).

In the Sandoval Lake sector there are 4 property titles (three individual and one belonging to an association), and 4 properties with a certificate of possession with a total of 287 ha, belonging to: Letis Mejía Sepa, Carmen Mejía Sepa, Wilding Mejía, Sandoval Lake Logde, Benavides Miranda Vigo, Tayson Mejia, Francisco Chirinos Miranda and Lenis Mejía Sepa.

The third sector with overlap (960 ha) to the ANP, is the Native Community of Hell and the fourth sector is in La Torre (1 titled land of 105 ha). In total, the area superimposed on the RNTAMB with title deeds, certificates of possession and precarious is 3 708 hectares for the reserve of tambopata.

Infrastructure of Control and Surveillance of the RNTAMB:

The ANP has 9 distributed Control and Surveillance posts in the Malinowski River, Tambopata, Madre de Dios and Heath (Map 3); which are the pillar of the activities in the Reserve and control of entry to the Bahuaja Sonene National Park in Madre de Dios in the sectors of Farfán, Tambopata with the PCV Malinowski and San Antonio in the Heath River. The 9 positions are: San Antonio, Briolo, Huisene, Sandoval, Jorge Chávez, La Torre, Malinowski, Azul and Farfán. During 2010, the Administration Contract built part of the infrastructure of the new LaV PCV and it was implemented with new infrastructure to the posts of Jorge Chávez and San Antonio (Annex 13: Specific Functions of the Control and Surveillance Posts).

The 2011 operational plan of the Tambopata National Reserve aims to conduct 200 annual patrols, of which 8 are special patrols, which are carried out indiscriminately by the control posts according to the pressures detected towards the protected area.

Social and cultural activities in the associations and native communities in the Tambopata National Reserve:

The expressions and festivities of the associations, known as popular and cultural, are manifested in a sequel of civic celebrations, established mainly nationally, regionally and locally, executed in school or similar spaces.

Among the main festive celebrations are the anniversary of the associations or communities, the celebration of carnivals, San Juan, Virgen de la Candelaria, anniversary of Puerto Maldonado, Holy Week; and others such as new year, mother’s day, worker’s day, school anniversary, father’s day.

Sport is present as a means of socialization, therefore, on the occasion of the anniversary of an association, sector or community, the well-known football championships are organized, especially the inter-communities.

For the native communities the custom and the tradition have a historical sustenance, and great social and cultural importance according to their cosmovision, transmitted from generation to generation orally. The main acts include ritual, song and dance, in recognition and devotion of deities and guardian spirits, and whose compliance is strict.

Local economic development in tambopata:

Agricultural situation:

Agricultural land in the ZA has an average of 42.7 ha, of which approximately 14.2 are used for agricultural activities, another 4.4 are used for livestock production and 24.1 are preserved as forests on average.

The average value used for livestock activities has fairly distant ranges, from a minimum of 2.25 ha to a maximum of 33.59 ha. This is explained when livestock activities are considered to include the raising of poultry that does not require large areas, but raising cattle requires one hectare of pasture per head of cattle. The hectares destined to agricultural production present less uneven ranges.

Agricultural crops and fast-growing products such as corn, rice, cassava and bananas that come from the farm, generate income to cover the primary needs that the producer needs (Figure 1). The production is commercialized in Puerto Maldonado or Mazuko, existing a direct economic transaction between the producer and the buyer. This type of commercialization allows the producer not to sell his product to the “rescatista” stockist (Loja et al., 2010).

Breeding and care of animals (ducks, chickens, pigs, guinea pigs and cattle):

The work force for the upbringing and care of animals comes basically from the family nucleus. The agricultural producers complement their activities with the raising of animals to cover needs of education, health, life insurance, credit and investment to improve their quality of life. lifetime.

Cattle production of cattle is mainly developed in the Road Zone of Puerto Maldonado – Cusco, there being very little livestock raising in areas near the rivers. While the raising of poultry and other small animals, it is reduced and mostly for self-consumption.

Local economic development in amazon peru:

Agricultural situation in the tambopata national reserve:

The agricultural land in the ZA have an average of 42.7 ha, of which approximately 14.2 are used for agricultural activities, another 4.4 are used for livestock production and 24.1 are preserved as forests on average – tambopata lodge .

The average value used for livestock activities has fairly distant ranges, from a minimum of 2.25 ha to a maximum of 33.59 ha. This is explained when it is considered that livestock activities include the raising of poultry that does not require large areas of jungle trips, but raising cattle requires one hectare of pasture per head of cattle. The hectares destined to agricultural production present less uneven ranges.

Agricultural crops and fast-growing products such as corn, rice, cassava and plantain that leave the farm generate income to cover the primary needs that the producer needs (jungle tours). The production is commercialized in Puerto Maldonado or Mazuko, existing a direct economic transaction between the producer and the buyer in amazon tours. This type of commercialization allows the producer not to sell his product to the “rescatista” stockist (Loja et al., 2010 lodge).

Breeding and care of animals (ducks, chickens, pigs, guinea pigs and cattle):

The work force for the upbringing and care of animals comes basically from the family nucleus in the national tambopata reserve.

The agricultural producers complement their activities with the raising of animals to cover the needs of education, health, life insurance, credit and investment to improve their quality of life in the Peruvian Amazon.

Cattle production of cattle is mainly developed in the Road Zone of Puerto Maldonado – Cusco, there being very little livestock raising in areas near the rivers. While the raising of poultry and other smaller animals, it is reduced and mostly for self-consumption in the national tambopata reserve.